ICT's laboratory.ImmunoChemistry Technologies (ICT) excels in conjugation (linking molecules together). We can:

  • Covalently attach signal-generating enzymes to antibodies (as a means of labeling the antibodies)
  • Couple fluorescent labels to specific proteins (including antibodies) and peptides
  • Biotinylate antibodies and proteins (for use in avidin-biotin interactions)
  • Conjugate hapten groups (i.e., drug) to carrier proteins

Because we are experts in antibody conjugation techniques, ICT can provide a properly conjugated product quickly and efficiently. Every conjugation is made specifically for each client, ensuring maximum utility and specificity for your project. ICT works closely with each client to clearly understand their objectives to identify the proper coupling technique prior to beginning the conjugation. For a specific quote, please review the questions at the bottom of this page, and give us a call at 800-829-3194 or contact us online.

Antibody ConjugatesICT can conjugate enzymes to antibodies.

Conjugated antibodies are often used in ELISA immunoassays and Western blots, among other laboratory techniques. Various enzymes, such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), can be attached to antibodies and proteins to act as signal-generating molecules. In addition, non-enzymatic fluorescent labels and biotin can be coupled to specific antibodies, proteins, and peptides as a means of signal generation.

Through the use of different coupling chemistries, ICT can maintain the activity of the antibody by directing the position of the label so that it does not interfere with the antigen binding site (Fab). Enzymes can be covalently coupled to a specific antibody using maleimide-sulfhydryl coupling chemistries. Periodate oxidation methods, which specifically direct the coupling location to the Fc portion of the antibody molecule, may also be utilized. Attachment through this location minimizes the steric hindrance associated with coupling an enzyme molecule near the Fab (binding) region of the antibody. ICT can conjugate haptens to a carrier protein to increase immunogenicity.

Hapten Conjugates

Conjugated molecules can be used as immunogens when injected into mice, goats, chickens, or other species, to generate antibodies within that animal. Correct conjugation methods are essential to direct the specific molecular orientation of the hapten group onto the carrier protein. This orientation is critical for proper presentation and processing in the animal to ensure the generation of hapten- specific antibodies.


Most conjugates are finished within 1 week.


This is a general guideline. Additional fees may apply for unusual materials or challenging molecules. All customers are given specific quotes after we have discussed their project. For prices regarding other enzymes, fluorescent labels, and hapten-carrier conjugations, or for higher volumes (such as +25mg of antibody), please contact us 800-829-3194. All prices are in US dollars.

Enzyme-Antibody Conjugates
10 mg Ab Each additional mg
Alkaline Phosphatase $3,000 $300
Biotin $1,800 $180
FITC $1,800 $180
HRP $2,500 $250

Start Your Project Today

Please review the questions below and give us a call at 800-829-3194, or submit your inquiry with our online form. We will be happy to sign a confidentiality agreement. We will provide a specific quote and get started as soon as we receive the materials.

Conjugation Questions

  • What molecules must be conjugated?
  • Have the molecules been purified?
  • Do you have the molecules, or can they be purchased?
  • What will the conjugate be used for?
  • Does the conjugated molecule have to retain its functionality?
  • What form are the molecules currently in? (for example, frozen serum or buffer)
  • What is the pH and composition of the buffer?
  • What is the concentration of the molecule?
  • How much of the molecule do you have?
  • How much must be conjugated?